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Adverse Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)

Updated: Apr 25, 2023



Heartburn is a burning sensation that arises from the lower chest and moves up toward the neck or throat.


The most common typical symptom of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is heartburn that is frequent and persistent (3 or more months). People with GERD may or may not have damage to the esophagus (the structure that connects the throat to the stomach).


Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) are often given to patients with heartburn or GERD and can be given by prescription and some may be found over-the-counter.


The 6 PPIs:

  1. Omeprazole (Prilosec)

  2. Esomeprazole (Nexium)

  3. Pantoprazole (Protonix)

  4. Lansoprazole (Prevacid)

  5. Dexlansoprazole (Dexilant)

  6. Rabeprazole (Aciphex)

PPIs are usually well tolerated. However, they are not without adverse effects, especially if used long-term.


Potential adverse effects of PPIs:

  1. Headache

  2. Dizziness

  3. Drowsiness/sleepiness

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency

  5. Clostridium difficile infection

  6. Kidney disease

  7. Increase risk of bone fracture

  8. Dementia

Since PPIs decrease the amount of acid in your stomach, the absorption of drugs that require an acidic environment can be effected. Also, some medications may not work as well if they are taken with a PPI.


Some of the drugs that may have an interaction with PPIs:

  1. Ketoconazole

  2. Intraconazole

  3. Diazepam

  4. Warfarin

  5. Phenytoin

  6. Clopidogrel

  7. Theophylline

Did you know that your ethnicity could also affect how well your PPI works?


The same genetics that determine your ethnicity may also be the reason why your medication is not working as it is supposed to. Your DNA is one factor in how your body absorbs and breakdowns medications. A medication may not be working or could be causing side effects because you have a variation in your DNA. The only way to know how your genetics are affecting your medications is with a cheek swab or saliva test.


If you have more questions about your PPI or any other medication you are taking, click the button below.


Book a 30-minute phone call to speak with our pharmacist.

 

SOURCES:



Beradi, R., Ferreri, S., Hume, A., Kroon, L., Newton, G., Popovich, N., Remington, T., Rollins, C., Shimp, L. and Tietze, K., 2009. Handbook of nonprescription drugs. 16th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Pharmacists Association, pp.231-245.


Dipiro, J., Talbert, R., Yee, G., Matzke, G., Wells, B., and Posey, M., 2011. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiological Approach. 8th ed., pp. 557-558.





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